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Encyclopaedias before 1882

The following encyclopaedias (in alphabetical order) are discussed in this document:

Bei Tang Shu Chao 北堂書鈔, Cefu Yuangui 册府元龜, Chu Xue Ji 初学记, Gujin Tushu Jicheng 古今圖書集成, Sancai Tuhui 三才圖會, Taiping Yulan 太å¹³御览, Yi Wen Lei Ju 藝文類聚, Yongle Dadian 永樂大典, Yuhai 玉海 

Introduction

This is a list of Chinese encyclopaedic works generated as a completion of the list written by Rudolph G. Wagner. While Prof. Wagners list contains encyclopaedic works from the 19th and 20th century, this part concentrates on the books from before that date.

The encyclopaedias listed below are the books traditionally listed as leishu 類書. The definition of leishu as encyclopaedia must and will be challenged in the future. It is a common denominator or a special class of books which have in the past been understood as the Chinese equivalent to European encyclopaedias. Historically speaking, the term originated in the bibliographical catalogue of the Xin Tang Shu 新唐書. In order to overcome this normative definition of leishu, we will have to ask for the functional use of these books and thereby widen the scope of our understanding. Many books from the Chinese Imperial era made the all-encompassing claim of en encyclopaedia, albeit in some fraction of society. The zhengshu 政書 for instance, handbooks for government, can be seen as political encyclopaedias and should be included in this list at some later point. The same goes for books labelled as tongshu 通書, huiyao 會要 and at some point maybe even the collections of entire books, known as congshu 叢書 (For a discussion of Congshu cf. this document, for a bibliography cf. this list by Benjamin Elman). Due to the contact with Western civilization, the Western encyclopaedia was looked upon as the model for knowledge-containers and the historical leishu became obsolete. Obviously the genre of leishu has to be rethought, but in a first step we will here introduce the books that are classically called leishu.

A more extensive bibliography than the following extremely concise one will be added as it becomes available. As for now, these are the four publications used the most in the context of compiling this list.

  • FRANKE, Herbert 1984 – . „Chinesische Enzyklopädien“ In: Ostasiatische Literaturen /Günther Debon, Wolfgang Bauer (Hrsg.) 1984 (Neues Handbuch der Literaturwissenschaft; Bd. 23) – . Wiesbaden: Aula, 1984 – . ISBN 3-98104-071-7 ; S. 91–98.

  • KADERAS, Christoph 1998 –. Die Leishu der imperialen Bibliothek des Kaisers Qianlong (reg. 1736–1796) : Untersuchungen zur chinesischen Enzyklopädie (Asien- und Afrika-Studien der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin; Bd. 4) – . Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1998 – . ISBN 3-447-04059-9.

  • TENG, Ssû-yü und BIGGERSTAFF, Knight 1971 –. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works – . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 31971 – . ISBN 0-674-03851-7.

  • WINTER, Marc D. 2007b – . „Enzxklopädien im chinesischen Kulturraum — die leishu : Gigantismus und materiell manifestierter Machtanspruch in der chinesische Tradition“ In: MICHEL, Paul; HERREN, Madeleine; RÜESCH, Martin 2007 – . Allgemeinwissen und Gesellschaft : Akten des internationalen Kongresses über Wissenstransfer und enzyklopädische Ordnungssysteme, vom 18. bis 21. September 2003 in Prangins – . Aachen: Shaker, 2007 – . ISBN 978-3-8322-6355-3, S. 145–183.

Chronological List of Encyclopaedias

Bei Tang Shu Chao 北堂書鈔

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160 juan, comp. by Yu Shinan 虞世南 (558–638; courtesy name Boshi 伯施) in the early 7th century. The book was compiled by a High-official of the Sui dynasty and its original intention was for it to be useful in the writing of essays. It consists of 19 sections and a total of 160 juan.

In 1888 a wood-block edition was collated and annotated by Kong Guangtao 孔廣陶 (?–?) on the basis of a Song-dynasty edition, which was also used for this list. Christoph Kaderas characterizes the collated edition of Kong Guangtao as follows: «Auf einer dieser Vorlagen beruht eine von Kong Guangtao besorgte, textkritisch überarbeitete und kommentierte Ausgabe, die 1888 in 20 Bänden erschien. Kong Guantao kommt das Verdienst zu, die gesamten Zitate auf ihre Urheberschaft und Worttreue hin überprüft zu haben - eine gewaltige Leistung, da in den seltensten Fällen die zitierten Passus ihren Quellen wortwörtlich entnommen wurden.» (Kaderas 1998, 60)

The book has been reprinted various times and is available in most Chinese libraries: 

Clerical-script calligraphy of the title.
Clerical-script calligraphy of the title.

Diwang Bu 帝王部 (juan 1-22)

Houji Bu 后妃部 (juan 23-26)

Zhengshu Bu 政术部 (juan 27-42)

Xingfa Bu 刑法部 (juan 43-45)

Fengjue Bu 封爵部 (juan 46-48)

Sheguan Bu 设官部 (juan 49-79)

Liyi Bu 礼仪部 (juan 80-94)

Yiwen Bu 艺 文部 (juan 95-104)

Yue Bu 乐部 (juan 105-112)

Wugong Bu 武功部 (juan 113-126)

Yiguan Bu 衣冠部 (juan 127-129)

Yishi bu 仪饰部 (juan 130-131)

Fushi Bu 服饰部 (juan 132-136)

Zhou Bu 舟部 (juan 137-138)

Che Bu 车部 (juan 139-141)

Jiu Shi Bu 酒食部 (juan 142-148)

Tian Bu 天部 (juan 149-152)

Suishi Bu 岁时部 (juan 153-156)

Di Bu 地部 (juan 157-160)


 

Online fulltext-edition: http://www.guoxue123.com/zhibu/0201/03btsc/index.htm

Yi Wen Lei Ju 藝文類聚

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100 juan, comp. by Ouyang Xun 歐陽詢 (557–641). The collection was compiled around the year 661 (Kaderas 1998, 57) as a source book to be used in the composition of essays. It contains many literary quotes and thus has become an important source for literary authenticity. Teng and Biggerstaff write: «Its predecessors provided either essential factual information or examples of fine literary style, but Ouyang sought in his composition to supply both».

There are three block-prints available: Ming-dynasty jiajing blockprint-edition, 24 ce (also used for Sibu Congkan-edition); Ming-dynasty wanli block-print edition, 24 ce, Qing-dynasty Hua Yang Hong Da Tang 華陽宏達堂 re-cut block-print edition of 1879, 32 ce.

The book is divided into 47 sections. Under each item there are a number of brief factual extracts, chiefly from the Confucian classics and the official histories, ether which relevant passages are quoted from poems and essays to supply material for literary purposes.  

The author Ouyang Xun is firstly remembered as a first-rate calligrapher.
The author Ouyang Xun is firstly remembered as a first-rate calligrapher.
This is a rubbing of a calligraphy of the Heart Sutra attributed to him.
This is a rubbing of a calligraphy of the Heart Sutra attributed to him.

卷一 -卷二 天部

卷三 - 卷五岁时

卷六 地部、州部、郡部

卷七 山部

卷八 山部、水部

卷九 水部

卷十 符命部

卷十一 -卷十å›› 帝王部

卷十五 后妃部

卷十六 储宫部

卷十七- 卷三十七 人部

卷三十八 - 卷å››十 礼部

卷å››十一 - 卷å››十å›› 乐部

卷å››十五 - 卷五十 职官部

卷五十一 封爵部

卷五十二 -卷五十三 治政部

卷五十å›› 刑法部

卷五十五 - 卷五十八 杂文部

卷五十九 武部

卷六十 军器部

卷六十一 - 卷六十å›› å±…处部

卷六十五 - 卷六十六 产业部

卷六十七 衣冠部

卷六十八 仪饰部

卷六十九 - 卷七十 服饰部

卷七十一 舟车部

卷七十二 食物部

卷七十三 杂器物部

卷七十å›› 巧艺 部

卷七十五 方 术部

卷七十六 - 卷七十七 内典

卷七十八 - 卷七十九 灵异部

卷八十 火部

卷八十一 药香部、草部

卷八十二 草部

卷八十三 - 卷八十å›› 宝玉部

卷八十五 百穀部、布帛部

卷八十六 - 卷八十七 果部

卷八十八 - 卷八十九 木部

卷九十 - 卷九十二 鸟部

卷九十三 - 卷九十五 兽部

卷九十六 鳞介部

卷九十七 鳞介部、虫豸部

卷九十八 -卷九十九 祥瑞部

卷一百 灾异部



 

Online fulltext-edition: http://www.guoxue123.com/zhibu/0201/03ywlj/index.htm 

Chu Xue Ji 初学记

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30 juan, comp. under the leadership of Xu Jian 徐坚 (659–729). Compiled during the second half of the 7th century under Imperial auspices, this leishu has been held in high esteem throughout the Imperial period and is considered one of the best of its kind by the editors of the Siku Quanshu due to the high antiquity of texts quoted. It was written with an educational idea of providing all the relevant knowledge for students.

The Chu Xue Ji is divided into 23 sections and explains a total of 313 items. Teng and Biggerstaff name five block-prints: Ming-dynasty jiajing era Jin Fu 晉府 block-print from the in 12 ce, and also jiajing-era Xi Shan An Guo Fang Song 錫山安國仿宋慶齡基金會 block-print in 14 ce, Ming Chen Dake 陳大科 block-print edition of 1597–1598. 

Cover page of a modern edition.
Cover page of a modern edition.
Facsimile of the beginning of the book's preface.
Facsimile of the beginning of the book's preface.

卷一 -卷二 天部

卷三 - 卷å›› 岁时部

卷五 地理上

卷六 - 卷七 地部中, 地部下 (sic!)

卷八 州郡部

卷九 帝王部

卷十中宫部 储宫部 帝戚部

卷十一 -卷十二 职官部

卷十三 - 卷十å›› 礼部

卷十五 - 卷十六 乐部

卷十七 - 卷十九 人部

卷二十 政理部

卷二十一 文部

卷二十二 武部

卷二十三 道释部

卷二十å›› å±…处部

卷二十五 - 卷二十六 器物部

卷二十七 宝器部 草部 附

卷二十八 果木部 木部

卷二十九 兽部

卷三十 鸟部 鳞介部 虫部



Online full-text edition: http://www.guoxue123.com/zhibu/0201/03cxj/index.htm 

Taiping Yulan 太å¹³御览

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1000 juan plus 10 juan table of contents 1 juan table of illustrations, comp. by a team of 16 scholars under the guidance of Li Fang 李昉 (925–996), Hu Meng 扈蒙 (915–986) and Li Mu 李穆 (?–?) during the years 976–984. It is divided into 55 sections and was a giant work with the prestigious total of 1000 juan. Editions: Xi Xian Bao Shi 歙縣鮑氏 block-print edition of 1807 (80 ce), Japanese moveable-type edition of 1855 (156 ce), Shangwu Yinshuguan photolithographic reproduction of a collated Song edition, 1935 (136 ce).

The Taiping Yulan is different from all previous leishu in that it claims to contain all the important works of the Chinese literary tradition up to that point. The compilers claim to have browsed through all the books in the Imperial library, and all sections of knowledge were to be included in it. Thus it can be seen as the first «encyclopaedia» in the sense of the word as all-encompassing. The work was compiled by the same team and during the same time as the Taiping Guangji 太å¹³廣記.

Literature: KURZ, Johannes L. 2003 – . Das Kompilationsprojekt Song Taizongs (reg. 976–997) (Schweizer Asiatische Studien : Etudes asiatiques suisses, Monographien Bd. 45) –. Bern: Peter Lang, 2003 – . ISBN 3-906770-63-X. A partial translation of selected chapters from the Taiping Yulan was made by August Pfitzmaier (1808–1887). For this cf. Walker, Richard – . „August Pfitzmaiers Translations from the Chinese“ In: Journal of the American Oriental Society 69/4 (1949), p. 216. 

Title page of the 1960-edition of the Taiping Yulan published by Zhonghua Shuju.
Title page of the 1960-edition of the Taiping Yulan published by Zhonghua Shuju.

卷一 - 卷十五 天部

卷十六 - 卷三十五 时序部

卷三十六 - 卷七十五 地部

卷七十六 - 卷一百一十六 皇王部

卷一百一十七 - 卷一百三十å›› 偏霸部

卷一百三十五 - 卷一百五十å›› 皇亲部

卷一百五十五 - 卷一百七十二 州郡部

卷一百七十三 - 卷一百九十七 å±…处部

卷一百九十八 - 卷二百二 封建部

卷二百三 - 卷二百六十九 职官部

卷二百七十 - 卷三百五十九 兵部

卷三百六十 - 卷五百 人事部

卷五百一 - 卷五百一十 逸民部

卷五百一十一 - 卷五百二十一 宗亲部

卷五百二十二 - 卷五百六十二 礼仪部

卷五百六十三 - 卷五百八十å›› 乐部

卷五百八十五 - 卷六百六 文部

卷六百七 - 卷六百一十九 学部

卷六百二十 - 卷六百三十å›› 治道部

卷六百三十五 - 卷六百五十二 刑法部

卷六百五十三 - 卷六百五十八 释部

卷六百五十九 - 卷六百七十九 道部

卷六百八十 - 卷六百八十三 仪式部

卷六百八十å›› - 卷六百九十八 服章部

卷六百九十九 - 卷七百一十九 服用部

卷七百二十 - 卷七百三十七 方 术部

卷七百三十八 - 卷七百å››十三 疾病部

卷七百å››十å›› - 卷七百五十五 工艺 部

卷七百五十六 - 卷七百六十五 器物部

卷七百六十六 - 卷七百六十五 杂物部

卷七百六十八 - 卷七百六十五 舟部

卷七百七十二 - 卷七百七十六 车部

卷七百七十七 - 卷七百七十九 奉使部

卷七百八十 - 卷八百一 å››夷部 (东夷, 南蛮, 西戎, 北狄)

卷八百二 - 卷八百一十三 珍宝部

卷八百一十å›› - 卷八百二十 布帛部

卷八百二十一 -卷八百三十六 资产部

卷八百三十七 -卷八百å››十二 百谷部

卷八百å››十三 - 卷八百六十七 饮食部

卷八百六十八 - 卷八百七十一 火部

卷八百七十二 - 卷八百七十三 休征部

卷八百七十å›› - 卷八百八十 咎徵部

卷八百八十一 - 卷八百八十å›› 神鬼部

卷八百八十五 - 卷八百八十八 妖异部

卷八百八十九 - 卷九百一十三 兽部

卷九百一十å›› -卷九百二十八 羽族部

卷九百二十九 - 卷九百å››十三 鳞介部

卷九百å››十å›› - 卷九百五十一 虫豸部

卷九百五十二 - 卷九百六十一 木部

卷九百六十二 - 卷九百六十三 竹部

卷九百六十å›› - 卷九百七十五 果部

卷九百七十六 - 卷九百八十 菜茹部

卷九百八十一 -卷九百八十三 香部

卷九百八十å›› - 卷九百九十三 药部

卷九百九十å›› - 卷一千 百卉部

Online full-text: http://www.guoxue123.com/zhibu/0201/03tpyl/index.htm 

Cefu Yuangui 册府元龜

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1000 juan, compiled by a group of 15 compilers under the chief editorship of Wang Qinruo王钦若 (962–1025) and Yang Yi 楊億. Most of the editing staff of this work had gaine previous experience with the compilation of the two previous works Taiping Yulan and the Taiping Guangji. The Imperial orders for the work were issued in the year 1005 and completed in 1013. The leishu is divided into 31 sections with over a thousand items. Editions: Huang Jiuxi Wuxiu Tang block-print edition of 1672 in 320 ce and a re-cut of this block-print edition from 1814. 

Foto of all the volumes of a modern edition of the Cefu Yuangui.
Foto of all the volumes of a modern edition of the Cefu Yuangui.

The Cefu Yuangui is less of a literary leishu than the other early representatives of the genre. It’s main focus is on material on the lives and activities of early emperors and ministers. It was compiled to serve as a guide for those in positions of official responsibility. Today researchers on history use it as a source on Song and pre-Song political history and government. Kaderas 1998, 89 interprets the work as a document of the new-found importance of the civil service officials. 

Three of the 1000 volumes that make up the Cefu Yuangui.
Three of the 1000 volumes that make up the Cefu Yuangui.

卷一 - 卷一百八十一 帝王部

 This section includes the follwing sub-headings:

总序·帝系·诞圣·名讳·运 历·创业·继统·中兴·告功·都邑·年号·尊号·帝德·功业·徵应·符瑞·æ„Ÿ应·神助·孝德·奉先·崇祭祀·封禅·颂 德·尊亲·尊师·尊乳保·睦亲·文学·好文·宽恕·仁慈·度量·多能·奇表·神武·谋略·权略·智识·友爱·慈爱·谦德·从人欲·崇儒术·崇释氏·尚黄 老·养老·节俭·英断·明察·勤政·守法·致治·兴教化·立制度· 发号令·求贤·审官·务农·命相·ä»»贤·礼大臣·褒贤·委ä»»·庆赐·赦宥·奖善·礼贤·徵聘·推诚·亲信·听纳·纳谏·招谏·访问 ·惠民·朝会·宴享·巡 幸·藉田·î‘„ç‹©·亲征·选将·å¾讨·讲武·修武备·料敌·纳降·明赏·封建·褒功·念功·æ„å¾役·好边功·慰劳·旌表·念良臣·尊外 戚·弭兵·弭灾·恤 下·知子·知臣·辨谤·舍过·宽刑·慎罚夫·明罚·督吏·诫励·革弊·命使·招怀·却贡献·纳贡献·来远·求æ—§·继绝·修废·悔过·罪己·姑息·失政·滥 赏·恶直·疑忌·无断

 

 

卷一 -  卷一百八十一 帝王部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序·帝系·诞圣·名讳·运 历·创业·继统·中兴·告功·都邑·年号·尊号·帝德·功业·徵应·符瑞·æ„Ÿ应·神助·孝德·奉先·崇祭祀·封禅·颂 德·尊亲·尊师·尊乳保·睦亲·文学·好文·宽恕·仁慈·度量·多能·奇表·神武·谋略·权略·智识·友爱·慈爱·谦德·从人欲·崇儒术·崇释氏·尚黄 老·养老·节俭·英断·明察·勤政·守法·致治·兴教化·立制度· 发号令·求贤·审官·务农·命相·ä»»贤·礼大臣·褒贤·委ä»»·庆赐·赦宥·奖善·礼贤·徵聘·推诚·亲信·听纳·纳谏·招谏·访问 ·惠民·朝会·宴享·巡 幸·藉田·î‘„ç‹©·亲征·选将·å¾讨·讲武·修武备·料敌·纳降·明赏·封建·褒功·念功·æ„å¾役·好边功·慰劳·旌表·念良臣·尊外 戚·弭兵·弭灾·恤 下·知子·知臣·辨谤·舍过·宽刑·慎罚夫·明罚·督吏·诫励·革弊·命使·招怀·却贡献·纳贡献·来远·求æ—§·继绝·修废·悔过·罪己·姑息·失政·滥 赏·恶直·疑忌·无断

 

 

卷一百八十二 - 卷二百十八 闰位部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序·氏号·诞生·名讳·勋业·绍位·年号·孝德·奉先·尊亲·姿表·智识·聪察·器度·才艺 ·法制·政令·文学·好文·颂美·崇祀·弭灾·崇儒· 崇释老·惠民·仁爱·恤征役·建都·封建·勤政·诫励·朝会·宴会·庆赐·纳贡献·耕籍·务农·节俭·命相·选将·倚ä»»·祥瑞·徵应·知子·知臣·念良 臣·巡幸·畋游·礼贤·好贤·奖善·养老·恩宥·钦恤·念功·宽恕·宥过·悔过·旌表·明赏·延赏·求æ—§·继绝·招谏·纳谏·听纳·推诚·求贤·命使·权 略·训兵·招怀·和好·却贡献·å¾伐·交侵·失政·疑忌·恶直

 

 

卷二百十九 - 卷二百三十å›› 僭伪部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序·姓系·年号·形貌·聪识·令德·才艺 ·勋伐·奉先·孝友·宗族·世子·知人·宽恕·恩宿·戒惧·谋略·倚ä»»·崇儒·务农·好文·礼士·政治·求谏·听纳·褒赏·庆赐·饮宴·交好·和好·怀附·å¾伐·称藩·好土功·悔过·矜大·失策·兵败

 

 

卷二百三十五 -卷二百五十五 列国君部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

序·建国·锡命·奉先·部嗣袭·智识·谋略·ä»»谋·政令·ä»»贤·有礼·勤王·献捷·救患·崇祀·旌表·礼士·听谏·明赏·务德·宴享·休徵·戒惧·悔过·朝聘·姻好·盟会·攻伐·复邦·训练·御备·交质·行罚·识暗·奢僭·信谗·失政·失礼·失贤·拒谏·害贤

 

 

卷二百五十六 - 卷二百六十一 储宫部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序·建立·诞庆·仪貌·令德·孝友·文学·失德·监国·将兵·尊师傅·礼士·齿胄·讲学·忠谏·褒宠·追谥

 

 

卷二百六十二 - 卷二百九十九 宗室部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序·封建·仪貌·材艺 ·孝行·来朝·辅政·就国·委ä»»·将兵·文学·武勇·刚æ­£·令德·智识·友爱·辨惠·畏慎·悔过·褒宠·领镇·承袭·忠一·忠谏·图兴·立功·礼士

·荐贤俭约抑损好尚·退让专政·复爵·追封·谴让·不悌邪佞奢僭溺·专恣害贤祸败

 

 

卷三百 - 卷三百六 外 戚部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序选尚·封拜·委ä»»辅政将兵立功·褒宠·忠直规谏贤行礼士论荐·儒学退让畏慎廉俭·奢纵专恣骄慢·奸邪贪黩害贤谴让

 

 

卷三百八 - 卷三百三十九宰辅部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序佐命·佐命·德行闻望清俭威重德行·谋猷·公忠·æ­£直·褒宠·识量·器度畏慎慎密知人礼士·出镇·总兵机略·荐贤·谏争·ä»»职·兼领·奉使·退让·罢免·谴让·窃位自全不称·识暗依违强狠·不协狥私树党·奢侈贪黩专恣·邪佞忌害不忠

 

 

卷三百å››十 - 卷å››百五十六将帅部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

序·佐命·立功·机略·攻取·忠·褒异·儒学有礼儒学·请行·誓师警备誓师·习兵法申令示信示î…Š暇习兵法·威名·å‹‡敢·怀抚·明天时择地利抚士卒助·固守

·行军法·识略·清俭·æ­£直·谏诤·退让·å£垒·间谍·仁爱·得士心·礼贤荐贤召募训练·赴援·传檄·强明德义引咎不顾亲受命忘家·严整·持重·掩 袭·ä»»谋·推诚·ä»»能·讨逆·死事·招降·受降·料敌·守边拓土·乞师致师·器度让功不伐勤戎事·矫命而胜立後效·轻财示弱·献捷·继袭·强愎·无功奔 亡·要君违命擅命·交结忌害·败衄·陷没·无谋逗挠军不整·观望生事·违约狥私纵敌较敌·残酷报私怨·杀降专杀·失守谴让·争功矜伐·识暗·翻覆怯懦·豪 横奢侈专恣·贪黩·不和

 

 

卷å››百五十七 - 卷å››百八十二 台省部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序选ä»»·德望才智·公æ­£·æ­£直·宠异·清俭恭慎练习·谦退·识量·忠节·举职宣赞·荐举·封驳·奏议·谋ç”»·简傲废职父恶漏泄·奸邪·轻躁谴责·朋附·害贤·謟佞·贪黩

 

 

卷å››百八十三 - 卷五百十一 邦计部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序选ä»»·经费·济军输财·户籍迁徙·赋税·蠲复·山泽·田制·河渠·漕运·钱币·å¹³籴·常å¹³·屯田·îŽ«酤·俸禄··鬻爵赎罪·重敛·希旨·交结·旷败·诬誷·贪污

 

 

卷五百十二 - 卷五百二十二 宪官部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序选ä»»称职威望·公忠引荐褒赏·刚æ­£·振举·å¼¹劾·不称希旨残酷·私曲谴让诬誷

 

 

卷五百二十三 - 卷五百å››十九 谏诤部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序讽谏·规谏·直谏·强谏·遗谏·褒赏

 

 

卷五百五十 - 卷五百五十三 词臣部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序选ä»»·è¯学才敏器识·献替·献替谬误稽缓

 

 

卷五百五十å›› - 卷五百六十二 国史部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序选ä»»·é‡‡撰·论议·记注谱谍地理·世官·自序·疏缪不实非才

 

 

卷五百六十三 - 卷五百九十六 掌礼部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序制礼·制礼仪注·作乐·夷乐·讨论·奏议·谥法·谥法希旨缪妄

 

 

卷五百九十七 - 卷六百八 学校部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序选ä»»·教授·侍讲讲论·师道·辩博恩奖·奏议·注释·譔集·小学目录刊校雠嫉

 

 

卷六百九 - 卷六百十九 刑法部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序定律令·议谳·守法æ­£直·å¹³允å¹³反·案鞫深文枉滥

 

 

卷六百二十 - 卷六百二十五 卿监部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序选ä»»·司宗司宾监牧·德望忠节清俭·公æ­£论荐·智识·邪佞贪冒废黜

 

 

卷六百二十六 - 卷六百二十八 环卫部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序选ä»»举职宠异·忠节刚æ­£谨慎·奸佞迁黜虐害

 

 

卷六百二十九 - 卷六百三十八 铨选部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序条制·æ¡制第二·考课·公望å¹³直振举·不称谬滥贪贿

 

 

卷六百三十九 - 卷六百五十一 贡举部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序条制·æ¡制第二·考试·科目·对策·应举·清æ­£谬滥

 

 

卷六百五十二 - 卷六百六十å›› 奉使部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序达王命宣国威·称旨·奖恩名望廉慎知礼·智识·立功招抚·机变·才学论荐举劾·敏辩·守节·便宜请行绝域·羁留死事·失指辱命挫辱专恣受赂

 

 

卷六百六十五 - 卷六百七十 内臣部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序恩宠·贤行荐贤忠直才识·将兵监军立功事·翊佐规谏·朋党恣横谴责贪货·诬构

 

 

卷六百七十一 - 卷七百 牧守部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序选ä»»·褒宠·公æ­£·仁惠·教化·能政·兴利劝课·廉俭·静理推诚·谣颂æ„Ÿ瑞·遗爱·æ¡教课最·忠·礼士旌表·荐贤爱民·威严革弊·强明·智略·招辑·武功·刺举·修武备·酷虐·懦劣失政专恣·枉滥谴让·贪黩

 

 

卷七百一 - 卷七百七 令长部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序选ä»»褒异公æ­£·能政遗爱课最·教化æ„Ÿ化劝课·仁惠静治廉俭·明察折狱武功屏盗屈才·强毅·酷暴黜责贪黩

 

 

卷七百八 - 卷七百十五 宫臣部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序选ä»»·æ­£直·辅导·文学·规讽··忠於所事

 

 

卷七百十六 - 卷七百三十 幕府部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

縂序·知识·才学·公æ­£·谋ç”»·礻卑赞二

·规讽武功·尽忠·辟署·连累

 

 

卷七百三十一 - 卷七百五十 陪臣部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序封邑·智识·智谋·荐贤·为政知礼·忠义·规讽·有词·公æ­£死节·失礼奢僭专恣·交争变诈贼害·构患·奔亡

 

 

卷七百五十一 - 卷九百五十五 总录部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序孝·孝第·孝æ„Ÿ·忠·忠义·忠烈死节·义烈·攀附·儒学·自述·世官·志节·幼敏·名望

·高尚·博识·节操·世德兄弟齐名·寿考·守道·博学·德行·智智识·知几·知贤·慕贤思贤·长者·知礼·先见 ·博物·勤学·强记·敏捷·义·高洁 弃官·贤德·知言清廉辞赏·远名避嫌嫉恶·隐逸·游学·富好·退迹·è®©·诚æ„Ÿ·训子·知子·立祠·崇释教·尚黄老·清谈蕴藉·名字·品藻·论荐·论议·规 讽·è¯辩·性质质朴讷î’º鬼陋·养生·文章·知人·守官·膂力·善射·å‹‡·ä»»侠·谏诤谋ç”»·器量·友悌·姻好·立言·旷达·知音·医术·相术·笔札·起复· 生日名讳为人後·仁·报恩·è´µ盛·内举自知·游宴·明·救患·讼冤·方 术·方 æ­£刚·计策

·独行·交友·形貌·荐举·以德报怨和解·游说·梦徵·谣言·达命运命知亡日·复雠·改过悔过·治命·致政·自荐干谒·公直直服义·贫安安贫·书 信·疾ç–¹禳厌假告·薄葬·工巧杂伎·穷愁忧惧·伪政·嗜酒酒失·废滞·偏执介僻褊急·矜改节·å¿¿争诋讦·雠怨·妖妄·不忠不孝不睦·倾险诈伪餙非·谴累· 愧恨忍耻·畏懦佞佛谗佞·好尚嗜好好丹术·不知谬举·傲慢·枉横·短命·诬构·告讦·构患·å啬躁竞·奸佞·奸佞怨刺·讥诮·不嗣患难·残虐酷暴殃报·黩 货祸败·不谊·佻薄·巧宦附势朋党·失礼奢侈厚葬·诙谐庾词·逃难·逃难亡命·咎徵·忌害交构交恶·伤æ„Ÿ不遇困辱·寡学虚名妄作愚暗·知æ—§赠遗孤

 

 

卷九百五十六 - 卷一千 外 臣部

This section includes the following sub-headings:

总序种族·国邑·土风·官号才智贤行·封册·继袭·朝贡·助国讨伐

●卷九百七十四◎外 臣部·îˆ›异·褒异·降附·和亲·通好·盟誓·å¾讨·备御·交侵·î 译纳质责让 状貌技术勇鸷悖慢怨怼残忍·奸诈·入觐·强盛

Online full-text available: http://www.guoxue123.com/zhibu/0201/03cfyg/index.htm 

Yuhai 玉海

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200 juan, compiled by Wang Yinglin 王應麟 (1223–1296) during the second half of the 13th century. The book is divided into 21 sections with 240 items. Wang Yinglin is generally hailed as the epitome of learnedness in the Song-dynasty, a scholar or extensive knowledge and remarkeable memory. He compiled the leishu to assist candidates for the special civil service examination known as boxue hongci 博學宏詞. His teacher Zhen Dexiu真德秀 (1178–1235/38) advised him to copy all the quotes for his preparation into a notebook, which became the foundation for the Yuhai.

Wang Yinglin, who is also sometimes credited with having written the earliest edition of the San Zi Jing 三字經, assembled quotes from the classics, histories, philosophers, belles-lettres, biographies as well as other sources. The material under each item is arranged chronologically from ancient times to the Song.

No online-edition available. Reprints widely available in Chinese language libraries (e.g. Heidelberg), Shanghai Guji Chubanshe in 1992 made a reprint in six volumes. 

First Page of the Yuhai in the edition of the Imperial Collection Siku Quanshu.
First Page of the Yuhai in the edition of the Imperial Collection Siku Quanshu.

Yongle Dadian 永樂大典 永乐大典

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22,877juan. This giant collection wasstarted in 1403 and completed in 1408. The original title was Wenxian Dacheng 文獻大成, and the better-known Yongle Dadian was used as title only after 1407. The compilation team included 147 experts for all the subdivisions and an alleged total of 2169 editors. The excerpted or copied entirely between 7000 and 8000 books. 

The beginning of the entry on "lakes" in the Yongle Dadian.
The beginning of the entry on "lakes" in the Yongle Dadian.
Foto of the outside cover for a beautiful "thread-bound" edition of the Yongle Dadian.
Foto of the outside cover for a beautiful "thread-bound" edition of the Yongle Dadian.

The book was copied in manuscript form, totalling in 11’095 volumes. Franke estimates that all of these books „aufeinandergelegt eine Höhe von zweihundertfünfzig Metern erreicht haben würde“ (Franke 1984, 94).

In a deviation from the established form, the Yongle Dadian was not organised in the ordo essendi, but was made accessible through phonology. The entries were listed according to the established form of dictionaries, according to the pronunciation of finals.

The book has not been handed down, it was mostly destroyed in various stages: After its completion it was kept in the library of the Forbidden City, Wenyuan Ge 文淵閣. Although in 1519 there was a demand to have it published, the size alone prevented a publication. In 1562 more than 100 scholars were asked to make corrections and replace the first missing volumes. Also they were ordered to copy the work. The two copied made this way were stored in the former Ming-capital of Nanjing and in the Imperial archives Huangshi Cheng 皇史宬, but both locations burned to the ground shortly after. In 1644, when the city fell to the Manchus there was one copy still available in Beijing, which was used extensively when the Siku Quanshu was compiled in the 1770s.

There is some controversy over the further responsibility for the collection’s demise, but usually it is alleged that the soldiers from eight allied nations, among them British, French, German, Japanese and U.S.-troops burned the last existing copy as a means of retaliation for the anti-forigner insurgencies of 1900 (the Boxer Rebellion).

Samuel Couling in his Encyclopaedia Sinica writes: „At the fall of the Ming dynasty the original and one copy perished. The other copy, nearly complete, was kept, but not cared for, in the Hanlin College till 1900, when the Boxers fired the library, which adjoined the British Legitation, and the last copy of the work was destroyed; though a few score volumes were afterwards picked up by foreigners.“ (Couling 1917, 296, under the heading leishu). Today, a mere 800 volumes or 4% of the original has been preserved. 

Reprints of the remaining volumes available in Chinese language libraries (e.g. Heidelberg), Online partial edition available:

卷485-卷3600: http://www.guoxue123.com/other/yldd/yldd1/index.htm

卷3700-卷10310: http://www.guoxue123.com/other/yldd/yldd2/index.htm

卷12016-卷18222: http://www.guoxue123.com/other/yldd/yldd3/index.htm

卷18223-卷22577: http://www.guoxue123.com/other/yldd/yldd4/index.htm 

Sancai Tuhui 三才圖會

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106 juan, comp. by Wang Qi王圻 (1530–1615) and his son Wang Siyi 王思義 (?–?) between 1607 (date of earliest preface) and 1609 (date of latest preface). This encyclopedia is organized into 14 sections and 106 chapters. Huai Yin Caotang 槐蔭草堂 edition of 1609 in 60 ce

The Sancai Tuhui is a unique leishu in that it features illustrations with short explanatory texts. Its title refers to the three realms of Heaven, Earth and Man. The book accordingly features celestial maps and bird-view’s maps of places in China. But the largest section is devoted to the human realm: clothing, weapons, fine arts, bizarre stones, portraits of historical figures and such. Finally there are illustrations of plants and animals.

No online-edition available. Reprints widely available in Chinese language libraries (e.g. Heidelberg)

Here three examples from the Book: The drawing of a cicada, an Indian man, and a map of the burial ground of Confucius and the Kong-family close to the city of Qufu in Shangdong. 

Drawing of a Cicada
Drawing of a Cicada
Indian man
Indian man
Map of the burial ground of Confucius and the Kong-family
Map of the burial ground of Confucius and the Kong-family

Gujin Tushu Jicheng 古今圖書集成

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10,000 juan, completed under the chief editorship of Chen Menglei 陳夢雷 (1651–1741?) in 1726. Officially known as Qinding Gujin Tushu Jicheng 欽定古今圖書集成, this is the largest leishu still existent today. Its table off contents is an additional 40 juan and the list of errata runs up to another 44 juan. It contains 6109 items under 32 section headings, „which are in turn grouped under six major categories: Heavenly Phenomena, Georgraphy, Human Relationship, Arts and Sciences, Literature and Political Economy (Teng & Biggerstaff 1950, 127). The book contains texts copied from other sources and also many illustrations.

Compilation was initiated by the kangxi-emperor in the early 18th century. It was created in several Stepps finishing in 1706, 1722 and 1726 respectively. Chen Menglei 陳夢雷 (1651–1741?) was assigned the mammoth task of chief editorship although he had been sentenced to death for rebellion at an earlier stage. When the kangxi-emperor met with him on a Southern Inspection Tour, he rehabilitated Chen and made him the teacher of his third son Yinzhi 胤祉 (1677–1732).

Beginning in 1701, Chen Menglei started assembling the leishu under the working title Huibian 匯 編, using he personal library and the Imperial library as initial sources. After presenting a first draft to the throne in 1706 he was granted access to the Imperial palace library and the title was changed to the present form.

The court not only sponsored the print, but made it an object of prestige when it insisted on casting moveable copper-types rather that the traditional woodblocks. The kangxi-emperor decreed this new printing technique before his death in 1722, and thus made the Gujin Tushu Jicheng the first book printed using moveable letters in the Imperial print-shop.

The successor to the throne known as the yongzheng-emperor was suspicious of Chen Menglei and had him removed from his post and replaced by Jiang Tingxi 蔣廷錫 (1669–1732). Unfortunately, he also had all the documents destroyed that detailled the history of the book itself and its compilation.

Jiang Tingxi edited the collection between 1723 and 1726, but apparently nothing serious was changed. In 1728 the book was printed a second time with a total of 64 copies. The printed format measured 21 by 15 cm. Between 1884 and 1888 a smaller and cheaper edition appeared in Shanghai (15 by 11 cm printed area), published by Ernest und Frederic Major, but reportedly plagued with mistakes. This edition is known as the Meicha-edition 美查.

An searchable online-edition is available here. Reprints widely available in Chinese language libraries (e.g. Heidelberg). 


Illustrated page from the Gujin Tushu Jicheng.
Illustrated page from the Gujin Tushu Jicheng.
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