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Joint conference

The Materiality of the Sacred in Medieval Japan and Europe:
Buddhism, Shinto, Christianity

 

February 29 - March 2, 2016

 Karl Jaspers Centre, Voßstraße 2, Bldg. 4400, Heidelberg

Organized by projects MC 3.1 “Economies of the Sacred” and Prof. Abe Yasuro (Nagoya Universities)

Concept

The Image and Materiality of the Sacred

– Objects and Spaces of Religious Production in Japan and Europe –

Abe Yasurō (Nagoya University)

 

The aim of all religions, be they folk religions or universal ones, is to strive for a “sacred” that separates from and transcends the material and physical aspects of reality. In practice, it is a constant endeavor of both aspiring to and questioning the state of sacredness. However, the sacredness is necessarily rooted in the materiality; as such it knows no other way to manifest itself rather than through a medium of diverse source materials and techniques of their manufacturing and assemblage. Put otherwise, since the “sacred” is constantly grounded in some kind of objects and techniques, it could also be [poetically] rendered as “a mysterious power” which manifests as if bursting out from within. What comes to mind here is a stereotypical legend according to which even the astonishing skills of master craftsmen that come with large-scale religious production only reach their completion thanks to the divine help, such as the work of angels. This suggests that the so-called “mystical operation” behind the production of outstanding religious art is constantly supported by the workings of a techné thus bringing to the fore a kind of sacredness that always dwells on the material. To explore the hidden mechanisms behind this phenomenon is of major interest not only to the art history, but to the humanities in general.
Let us inquire what kind of materials and materiality is at the base of the religious art production, through a concrete case of the statues of Buddhist divinities. Firstly, depending on the material (be it stone, wood, or clay), the production methods of these statues differed. Metals such as iron, copper, or bronze, required advanced manufacturing techniques such as casting. Due to the progress of these technologies, the appearance of the religious objects also continued to change. Whether they were made from basic materials, or further modified with colours, gilt, lacquer, or golden leaves, different statues display different looks. There may have been cases in which it is the material itself that was considered sacred; nevertheless, certain techniques were required to make the statues materialize and “come to life.” Another important point is that these statues are not made purely of their outward surface: the iconic objects attain their meaning by their internal structure invisible from the outside and the symbolic typology of objects interred inside, such as inscriptions, texts and signs as well as discursive theories corresponding to the statues themselves and circulating in the society. Such iconic objects must be perceived in their entirety: for example, including the background mandorla or pedestal integral to the statue’s appearance, the accessories adorning them, portable cabinets enshrining them, the temple halls where such statues are displayed, as well as the temple’s overall architectural space and the relationship between its larger and smaller buildings. The three-dimensional interplay between the icons’ carving and the doors [of a cabinet or a space] adorning its sides, wall paintings and ornaments placed nearby may also be included. Moreover, on top of this synthesis, the foundational myths narrated by the temple’s engi enwrapping such iconic statues like an aura, the disposition and religious experience of temple parishioners who solicit and sponsor the production of icons transform them into the sacred objects that transcend the simple forms of materiality.
Oftentimes, it is the religious statue itself that prompts miracles; this may become codified as a certain sign, even during its production. A myth of such miracle may become attached to the similar statues and in turn prompt a repetition of similar miracles, and it is not rare, that subsequently, the very technique of the statue’s production or a specific material associated with it would become mythologized and strongly codified as sacred or divine. At other times, an old damaged statue would be stored inside a newly produced one, thus giving an increased sacred power to its successor.
In Japan, a rich variety of the medieval iconic objects have been transmitted as religious heritage. Among them are also examples that provided vital ideas to the new forms of production. One could say that such objects are a cultural product and media that, on the one hand, transported the teachings of Buddhism from the early times, and on the other hand, was received in every strata of Japanese society, from the elites and royalty to the most popular circles. These complex [iconic] images are always supported by a dynamic materiality; their production follows each ebb and flow of such movement.
Moreover, it should be possible to compare such undertakings [and find similar conceptual junctures] to the splendid works of Christian art in medieval Europe. In addition to early pagan and indigenous religions, the Christian world of medieval Europe was built around the concept of proselytization. In some ways, the medieval societies were produced by the movements of pilgrims and worship that centered on the “sacred objects,” starting from the relics of Christ and including a countless number of relics of saints. Such relics were stored in reliquaries ornamented with design and adorned by gold and jewels. In addition, ritual spaces were shaped through the iconic images visualizing the lives of saints and their miracles, and grand cathedrals, churches, monasteries, and chapels were constructed. Such spaces were overflowing with voices and legends proclaiming miracles and proselytizing the Christian teachings; the revelations happening during church celebrations and ritual processions further enlivened the power of the religious icons and their surrounding spaces. There, the materiality of the “sacred objects” was brought to its peak.
We finally begin to assess the various aspects of expression – the production of sacredness mediated by its materiality, as so vividly demonstrated by the medieval art of Europe and Japan. No doubt, many examples will be introduced, and many engrossing questions will be raised, drawing on the research results from a variety of disciplines. It is through a sustained pursuit of such endeavors that the new terrains constantly open up in the studies of the humanity. It is precisely such hope that I hold for this symposium.

(tr. by Maria Römer and Anna Andreeva)

〈聖なるもの〉のイメージとマテリアリチィ―
日本とヨーロッパにおける宗教造型のモノと場―

趣旨

あらゆる宗教は、民族宗教であれ普遍宗教であれ、その目指すところ、現実の物質的・肉体的な地平を離脱して超越する〈聖なるもの〉を志向する。その実践とは、絶えず聖性を希求し探究する営みである。しかしながら、その聖性とは、必ず物質性に根ざし、さまざまな素材と加工技法の組み合わせを介して発現する他はない。言い換えれば、〈聖なるもの〉とは、常に何らかのモノとワザに拠りながら、そのものの内側から喰い破るように発現する霊妙な奇蹟である、ということもできよう。そこに想起されるのは、偉大な宗教造型に時として伴う、名匠工人の驚くべき巧みも天使たちの御わざに援けられてはじめてみたす完成することを得た、という類型的な伝説である。それが示唆するのは、すぐれた宗教芸術の生成という神秘の作用は、常に物質に宿る聖性を顕現させる技芸のはたらきに支えらはたらきテクネーれている、ということである。その秘密を探ることは、美術史学に限らず、人文学が共有する根本的な関心事であろう。
宗教造型の基盤となる物質ないし物質性とは何か、具体的に尊像彫刻を例にとってファンデーション尋ねてみよう。まず、素材としての石や木ないし土など、材質によって制作技法は全て異なり、鉄や銅、ブロンズなど金属の場合には鋳造など加工する高度な技術が要請され、また技術の進展に応じてその実現形態は変化する。それらが素地のままで完成するのか、またその上に彩色、鍍金、漆箔など加工・装飾を加えることによって、像は全く異なる相貌を示す。あるいは素材そのものが聖性を帯びるものとして限定され、そのうえに像を現出するための技術が求められる場合もあろう。像はまた、表面の外貌ばかりで成り立つのではない。外からは見えない内部構造や納入物の象徴体系、そして銘文等の文字テクストとその言説から、尊像は意味を付与される。あるいは尊像をめぐる光背や台座など、荘厳としての附属物や安置する厨子や宮殿、ひいては堂舎などの建築空間との関係性まで含めて、トータルにとらえられなければならない。尊像彫刻と組み合わせられる扉絵や壁画・装飾との立体的な照応も含まれよう。しかも、その綜合のうえに尊像を取り巻き覆うアウラの如き縁起伝承や、造立の契機となる願主の心意や宗教体験が、その像をまさにモノを越えた存在としてあらしめる。
時には造られた尊像自体が霊験をあらわし、その証がしるし付けられ、或いは造作さあかしれることすらある。更には、そうした伝承こそが同一の尊像を模して幾つも繰り返し再現する動機となり、それは強固な伝統的様式と化して、造立にあたり素材や技法を規定することも稀では無い。時には破損した前身像を新像の胎内に納めることもあった。それにより尊像の霊威は継承されることになるのである。
日本における中世宗教造型の多彩で豊穣な達成は、今日なお厖大な宗教遺産として伝存し、なかには、なお新たな創造を生み出す生命力を蔵するものもある。それらは、古代に仏教がもたらされ、王権から民俗の次元にまでわたって受容した文化の所産であると言ってよい。その豊かなイメージは、常に生動する物質性に支えられ、その運動の変化によって創り出されている。ヨーロッパ中世のキリスト教芸術の壮麗な世界を、このような観点から対比することは、おそらく無意味な企てではないだろう。古代の異教や土着宗教の世界のうえに、中世ヨーロッパのキリスト教世界は布教によって築かれた。キリストの遺品をはじめ、無数の殉教聖人たちの遺骸―聖遺物を〈聖なるもの〉の核として、それを崇拝し巡礼するための運動が中世社会を創り上げていった。聖遺物は黄金や宝石で荘厳された意匠を凝らした容器に納められ、更にそれを聖者の生涯とその奇蹟を可視化した図像イメージによって祭儀空間が形成され、ひいては大聖堂が構築されるに至る。その空間は、霊験を喧伝するレゲンデの言説と声に満たされ、祝祭における顕示や渡御行列が、その権能
を活気づける。そこには至るところに〈聖なるもの〉の物質性が充ちあふれているのである。
中世にあざやかに示される、ヨーロッパと日本の宗教造型の、物質性を介した聖性創出―発現の諸相を比較検討する試みは、いま、ようやく始められようとする。多くの事例の紹介、各専門分野からの研究蓄積をふまえた問題提起を交差させること、また、そうした試みを持続させることによってこそ、あたらしい人文学の地平が切り開けるであろう。そうした期待をもって、今回の研究集会に臨みたい。

名古屋大学文学研究科
人類分解産テクスト学研究センター
阿部泰郎

Programme

Monday, February 29

                                   2月29日(月)

 

16: 00–17: 30             Group visit of the Academy Project by Prof. Lotar Ledderose

Hauptstrasse 113, Heidelberg

“Buddhist Stone Inscriptions in China”

ハイデルベルグ・アカデミーのレデッローゼ先生(東洋美術史)研究室のご訪問

研究プロジェクト「中国における仏教的石碑文」

 

18: 00             Keynote lecture I: Medieval Japan/キーノート講演: 中世日本

 

Prof. ABE Yasurō (Japanese Religions, Nagoya University)

阿部泰郎教授(日本宗教史・中世宗教文化、名古屋大学)

 

“The Materiality of the Sacred in Medieval Japan: Statues, Myths, and Religious Space Surrounding the Nyorai Buddha of Zenkōji” (in Japanese)

中世日本における「聖なる物」のマテリアリテイー:善光寺如来をめぐる造像・伝承・宗教空間(日本語)

 

 

                                   Tuesday, March 1

                                   3月1日(火)

 

9: 30 am–9: 45am                  Opening remarks and technical announcements

by the local organizers

                                               Prof. Melanie Trede and Dr. Anna Andreeva

MORNING SESSION

CHAIR: Dr. Michael HOFF (European Art History, Heidelberg)

9: 45am                      Presentation 1/発表1

 

Prof. KIMATA Motokazu (Western Medieval Art History, Nagoya University)

木俣元一教授 (中世西洋美術史、名古屋大学)

 

「シャルトル大聖堂における展示プログラム:聖遺物・聖餐・ステンドグラス」(英語)

“The Programme of Display at the Chartres Cathedral: Relics, Eucharist, Stained Glass” (in English)

 

 

10: 45 am–11:00am               Short coffee break/短いコーヒー休憩

11: 00am        Presentation 2/発表2

 

Ms. KATSUTANI Yuko (University of Strasbourg)

勝谷祐子 (西洋中世キリスト教美術史、ストラスブール大学)

 

「サン・ボネ・ル・シャトー参事会聖堂壁画研究―イタリア絵画との比較から」(英語)

“A Study of the Wall Paintings in the Lower Chapel of the Collégiale de Saint-Bonnet-le-Château––Drawing Comparisons with Italian Paintings” (in English)

 

12: 00 am       Presentation 3/発表3

 

Ms. YURIKUSA Mariko (Nagoya University)

百合草真理子(イタリア・ルネサンス美術史、名古屋大学)

 

「パルマ、サン・ジョヴァンニ・エヴァンジェリスタ聖堂における観者の視覚経験」(英語)

“The Visual Experiences of the Spectator in the monastery of San Giovanni Evangelista in Parma” (in English)

 

 

13: 00 – 14.30                        Lunch break/お昼休憩

AFTERNOON SESSION

Chair: Jörg QUENZER (Japanese Studies, Hamburg)

14: 30             Presentation 4/発表4

 

Prof. Claire-Akiko BRISSET (Japanese Cultural History, Paris Diderot University)

クレア・アキコ・ブリッセ教授(日本文化史、パリー・デデロ大学)

 

“About the Eye-Opening Ceremony: Between the Medium and the Icon in Japan” (in English)

「開メディアとアイコンの間:開眼供養をめぐって」(英語)

15: 30pm–16: 00pm               Coffee break/コーヒー休憩

16:00pm–17:00pm                 Presentation 5/発表5

Dr. ABE Mika 阿部美香 (Showa Women’s University)

 

温泉の神と仏のマテリアリティ―走湯権現像をめぐって(日本語)

“The Materiality of the Kami (Local Deities) and Buddhas of the Hot Springs––Focusing on the Icon of Sōtō Gongen” (in Japanese)

 

17: 00 – 17: 30           Discussion of the day

 

                                   Wednesday, March 2

                                   3月2日(水)

 

MORNING SESSION

CHAIR: Anna ANDREEVA (Japanese Religions, Heidelberg)

 

9: 30 am         Presentation 7/発表7

 

(talk + discussion 1 hour each, approx. 45min+15 min, or 40min+20min/

発表+論議一時間、約45分+15分、又は40分+20分)

 

Prof. ABE Yasurō (Japanese Religions and Literature, Nagoya University)

阿部泰郎教授(日本宗教史・中世宗教文化、名古屋大学)

 

“The Worship of Sacred Objects and Their Forms, Spaces, and Legends in Medieval Japan–– The Relics Inside Shōtoku Taishi’s Hand and the Icons of ‘Praising-Buddha Prince’” (in Japanese)

「日本中世の聖遺物崇拝とその造型・空間・伝承−−聖徳太子拳内御舎利と南無仏太子」(日本語)

 

10: 30 am–10: 45am              Short coffee break/短いコーヒー休憩

10: 45am                    Presentation 8/発表8

 

Prof. CHIKAMOTO Kensuke近本謙介 (Japanese Medieval Literature, Tsukuba University)

 

聖徳太子をめぐる聖遺物とその重層的展開

―未来をかたる書とモノのマテリアリティ―(日本語)

 

The Sacred Relics Surrounding Prince Shōtoku and Their Multilayered Development––

The Materiality of Objects and Records Narrating the Future

 

11: 45 am       Presentation 9/発表9

 

Dr. Anna ANDREEVA (Japanese Religions, Heidelberg)

アンナ・アンドレーワ(日本宗教史、ハイデルベルグ大学)

 

“The Bodies of Women, the Letters of Men: Ritual, Gender, and Medicine in Sansei Ruijūshō (Encyclopaedia of Childbirth, ca. 1318)” (in English)

「女性の身体、男性の文字−−中世日本の『産生類従抄』における儀礼・ジェンダー・医学」(英語)

 

 

12: 45 – 14: 00                       Lunch break/お昼休憩

 

 

AFTERNOON SESSION

 

CHAIR: Claire-Akiko Brisset (Japanese Cultural History, Paris Diderot)

14: 00             Presentation 10/発表10

 

Prof. Jörg QUENZER (Japanese Studies, Hamburg)

ヨールグ・グヴェンツー教授(日本学、ハムブルグ大学)

           

“Mediating between text and physical object: Paratexts in Japanese manuscript culture” (English)
「テキストとものの間:日本写本のパラテキスト」(英語)

 

15: 00–15: 30             Coffee break/コーヒー休憩

15: 30             Presentation 11/発表11

Prof. Melanie TREDE (Japanese Art History, Heidelberg University)

メラニー・トレーデ教授(日本美術史、ハイデルベルグ大学)

 

“Colophons and other Framing Devices in Hachiman engi scrolls of medieval Japan” (in English)

「中世日本の『八幡縁起絵巻』の奥書と他のフレーミング方策」(英語)

16: 30–17: 00             Final discussion/最終論議

                        chaired by ABE Yasurō (Nagoya) and Anna ANDREEVA (Heidelberg)

 

 

17: 00  Keynote Lecture II: Medieval Europe第二基調講演中世ヨーロッパ

 

CHAIR: ABE Yasurō (Nagoya)

 

Prof. AKIYAMA Akira (Western Art History, Tokyo University)

秋山聰教授(西洋美術史、東京大学)

 

「聖なるモノの聖遺物的性格とイコン的性格をめぐって−比較宗教美術史的試み」(日本語)

“On the Relic and Iconic Character of the Sacred Objects – A Comparative Art History Perspective” (in Japanese)

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